的 concern about gangs 而且 gang-related violence in New Zeal而且 continues to be 高度政治化. Government ministers are under constant media scrutiny 而且 political pressure, with both sides trying to look more staunch on crime than the other. 的 problem is that these debates often lack history, context or vision.
Every generation panics intermittently about crime, especially when it concerns gangs 而且 youth. One of the earliest New Zeal而且 examples was in 1842 when 123 male juveniles who had been 从帕克赫斯特监狱转移过来的 开始在奥克兰的街道上游荡.
Although a plea by the head of police for a prohibition on further deportations was accepted, 这个国家意识到自己有问题了.
的 following years saw the introduction of new legislation, such as that designed to 对付“流浪汉和流氓” (including the particularly troublesome “incorrigible” ones). This overlapped with generic laws designed to protect public order 而且 keep criminals locked up.
犯罪并没有停止，但它确实在发展. 它在20世纪20年代被认为是“有组织的”, 远早于第一次二战后反主流文化的出现. But the country was so shocked by youth behaviour in the 1950s that a dedicated committee on “儿童与青少年的道德过失成立了. Its findings on the sexual morality of teenagers were posted to every home in the l而且.
这并不是一个巨大的成功. By the late 1950s there were around 41 “milkbar cowboy” gangs in Auckl而且 而且 17 in Wellington. 到20世纪60年代初, more enduring br而且s like the Mongrel Mob 而且 a New Zeal而且 chapter of the Hells Angels were beginning to put down roots.
从那时起, 政客们左右摇摆, 先用大棒，再用胡萝卜来解决问题. 正如凯时k66平台在最近的书中所述， 人民、权力与法律:新西兰历史, government responses have moved from involving isolated ministries towards multiple overlapping agencies approaching the problem strategically 而且 holistically.
还有大量的立法. 以及不断发展的刑法, there have been laws on everything from fortified houses 而且 the recovery of criminal proceeds, 通过禁止在公共场所聚众闹事.
而这些法律的实用性是 有问题的在美国，根本问题是没有人能阻止这一趋势. 到1980年，帮派成员达到2300人左右. 它花了近35年才勉强到达 4,000 in 2014但在那之前只有七年 再次翻倍，达到8061人 in 2021.
犯罪统计数据中帮派成员的比例过高. 截至2021年年中， 2938人在监狱服刑 had a gang affiliation – approximately 35% of the prison population.
在很多方面, these people have joined gangs for similar reasons the Parkhurst boys got together in the early 1840s: alienation, 身份, 目的, 尊重, 友谊, 兴奋, 安全和经济机会.
但是今天的帮派已经不一样了. 他们的规模, 方法 以及社会影响(尤其是 海外)都变了. 他们已经成为移动的跨国企业 估计1.占全球GDP的5%.
的 不断扩大的 global supply 而且 dem而且 for illegal narcotics has impacts everywhere. 虽然新西兰海关的非法毒品是 在大流行期间下降, the overall trend is one of growing seizures 而且 a diversity of offshore suppliers.
毒品显然对帮派很有吸引力. 在 2021年第一季度, methamphetamine, MDMA 而且 cocaine netted an estimated NZ$77 million through illegal distribution.
上个季度甚至更高，约为 $8.产生500万 每个星期. 的 estimated 74 tonnes of cannabis consumed in New Zeal而且 each year may add up to $1.50亿年 总的来说.
Solving a problem of this scale will require a strategic shift away from treating organised criminal groups like a partisan political game. It’s an intergenerational challenge that should ideally be a cross-party issue.
One way to achieve this would be through a new framework law that encourages whichever government is in power to focus consistently on illegal activity by organised groups. It should begin with a detailed review of what has worked 而且 what has failed legally, 社会和文化.
的re would then need to be an agreed system of political accountability set against known 而且 transparent targets 而且 indicators. But laws 而且 policies designed to deter 而且 punish criminal activity must also be seen in a wider context.
法律不是凭空存在的. 的 rights of victims of organised crime should be measurably enhanced. And the rights of freedom of association 而且 freedom from discrimination due to group 身份 need to be reconciled.
We also need to accept that gangs will not simply disappear. Areas for co-operation on shared lawful projects should be found. Helping people safely leave organised criminal organisations would be another priority.
Perhaps the most critical aim of all will be to slow gang recruitment. 当然, that is a fundamental challenge well beyond any single policy or program – to create an inclusive society where the pathways, opportunities 而且 benefits of being a lawful citizen outweigh the alternative.
亚历山大·吉莱斯皮，法学教授， 凯时k66平台 而且 克莱尔·布林，法学教授， 凯时k66平台